## Programming Resources

Hi friends,

I will keep editing the resources for other programming languages as well.
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## Data Science & Machine Learning - 6.4 Matplotlib Plots Customization

Hi friends,

Welcome to this post on Matplotlib Plots Customization under Data Science & Machine Learning. In the previous post, we discussed how to draw subplots using Matplotlib. In this post, we will learn to customize (plot color, plot style, etc.) our plots.

Note: All the commands discussed below are run in the Jupyter Notebook environment. See this post on Jupyter Notebook to know about it in detail.

## Matplotlib Plots Customization

Let's first import the Matplotlib library and also recreate the NumPy Array we created in the previous post as the data for the plots. I suggest you to go through this post if you find any difficulties in any of the statements executed below:

Let's now create some plots with the Matplotlib:

#### Change the plot color

Matplotlib supports two ways (using the color name and the RGB hex code) of changing the color of the plot using the color parameter of the plot method. I have changed the plot color to black using these two ways in the below example:

#### Change the line opacity

We can also change the opacity of the line of the plot using the alpha parameter of the plot method. The higher the alpha value the more opaque the plot. I have set the opacity to 0.8 in the below example:

#### Change the line width

We can change the width of the line of the plot using the linewidth parameter of the plot method. I have changed the linewidth to five times the default line width in the below example:

#### Change the line style

Matplotlib also supports various line styles for the plots. These can be changed by the linestyle parameter of the plot method. Below is an example of the dashed line style supported by the plot method:

Here is a list of all the style types supported by the plot method:

['solid' | 'dashed' | 'dashdot' | 'dotted' | (offset, on-off-dash-seq) |  '-' | '--' | '-.' | ':' | 'None' | ' ' '']

#### Marker for the actual points

Matplotlib also supports marking actual points on the graph using the marker parameter of the plot() method. Here is an example of triangle down marker:

The following link lists all the marker types supported by the plot method. I also recommend visiting this awesome link which provides tons of other customization options we can do with Matplotlib. With this, we end this post on Matplotlib. From the next post onward, we'll learn about Seaborn, another very important Data Science library to plot beautiful statistical plots.
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# Xtensor & Xtensor-blas Library - Numpy for C++

## Intro - What & Why?

I am currently working on my own deep learning & optimization library in C++, for my research in Data Science and Analytics Course at Maynooth University, Ireland. While searching for an existing tensor library (eigen/armadillo/trilinos - do not support tensors). I discovered Xtensor and Xtensor-blas, which has syntax like numpy and is avaliable for for C++ and Python.

## Capabilities/Advantages (Xtensor to Numpy cheatsheet)

• ### Numpy Like Syntax

``````typedef xt::xarray<double> dtensor;

dtensor arr1 {{1.0, 2.0, 3.0},   {2.0, 5.0, 7.0},   {2.0, 5.0, 7.0}}; // 2d array of double

dtensor arr2 {5.0, 6.0, 7.0}; // 1d array of doubles

cout << arr2 << "\n"; // outputs : {5.0, 6.0, 7.0}``````
• ### Intuitive Syntax For Operation

``````typedef xt::xarray<double> dtensor;

dtensor arr1 {{1.0, 2.0, 3.0},   {2.0, 5.0, 7.0},   {2.0, 5.0, 7.0}}; // 2d array of double

dtensor arr2 {5.0, 6.0, 7.0}; // 1d array of doubles

cout << arr2 << "\n"; // outputs : {5.0, 6.0, 7.0}

// Reshape
arr1.reshape({1, 9});
arr2.reshape({1,9});
cout << arr1 << "\n"; // outputs : {1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 2.0, 5.0, 7.0, 2.0, 3.0, 7.0}

dtensor arr3 = arr1 + arr2;
dtensor arr3 = arr1 - arr2;
dtensor arr3 = arr1 * arr2;
dtensor arr3 = arr1 / arr2;

// Logical Operations
dtensor filtered_out = xt::where(a > 5, a, b);
dtensor var = xt::where(a > 5);
dtensor logical_and = a && b;
dtensor var = xt::equal(a, b);

// Random numbers
dtensor random_seed = xt::random::seed(0);
dtensor random_ints = xt::random::randint<int>({10, 10});

// Basic operations
dtensor summation_of_a = xt::sum(a);
dtensor mean = xt::mean(a);
dtensor abs_vals = xt::abs(a);
dtensor clipped_vals = xt::clip(a, min, max);

// Exponential & Power Functions
dtensor exp_of_a = xt::exp(a);
dtensor log_of_a = xt::log(a);
dtensor a_raise_to_b = xt::pow(a, b);``````
• ### Easy Linear Algebra

``````// Vector product
dtensor dot_product = xt::linalg::dot(a, b)
dtensor outer_product = xt::linalg::outer(a, b)

// Inverse & solving system of equation
xt::linalg::inv(a)
xt::linalg::pinv(a)
xt::linalg::solve(A, b)
xt::linalg::lstsq(A, b)

// Decomposition
dtensor SVD_of_a = xt::linalg::svd(a)

// Norms & determinants
dtensor matrix_norm = xt::linalg::norm(a, 2)
dtensor matrix_determinant = xt::linalg::det(a)``````

## Installation

• Install Xtensor
``````cd ~ ; git clone https://github.com/QuantStack/xtensor
cd xtensor; mkdir build && cd build;
make
sudo make install``````
• Install xtensor-blas
``````cd ~ ; git clone https://github.com/QuantStack/xtensor-blas
cd xtensor-blas; mkdir build && cd build;
cmake ..
make
sudo make install``````

• It is a header only library
``````
#include <xtensor/xarray.hpp>

#include <xtensor/xio.hpp>

#include <xtensor/xtensor.hpp>
``````
``g++ -std=c++14 ./myprog.cpp -lblas``

## Where have I used it?

As mentioned in the intro, Xtensor and Xtensor-blas are the core component on which I have built my own deep learning & optimization library. This library is a monumental shift in C++ and ease of computation. In upcoming series of posts I will show you how to create your own library using xtensor.

## Next Post

In the next post, I will give an overview of the architecture of the project for your own library. And alongside I will introduce blas routines.
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## Data Science & Machine Learning - 6.3 Matplotlib Subplots & Other Features

Hi friends,

Welcome to another post on Python's Matplotlib library under Data Science & Machine Learning. In the previous post, we discussed basic ways to draw plots using Matplotlib. In this post, we'll see how to draw subplots using the Matplotlib library.

Note: All the commands discussed below are run in the Jupyter Notebook environment. See this post on Jupyter Notebook to know about it in detail.

## Matplotlib subplots

Let's first import the Matplotlib library and also recreate the NumPy Array we created in the previous post as the data for the plots. I suggest you to go through the previous post if you find any difficulties in any of the statements executed below:

Let's now start with the Matplotlib subplots. To create the Matplotlib subplots, the Matplotlib library provides the subplots() method:

In the above figure, we can see that the subplots() method creates a figure and a set of subplots and the number of subplots are specified by the nrows and the ncols parameters (by default, their values are 1). Let's now create a subplot of one row and two columns using the subplots() method:

The plt.subplots() method itself adds the axes to the figure based on the nrows and the ncols values which were earlier required to be added manually by us in case of single plots in the previous post

Further note that the axes variable in the above figure is an array of axes which is verified below:

Now, we can draw some plots using the NumPy Arrays we created above for each of the axes using the array indexing notation:

We can also add further customization(x-label, y-label, title) to each of the subplots just like we did in the previous post:

The tight_layout() method is used to avoid any overlap of values between the subplots.

We can also change the size of the plots using figsize parameter. Here is an example:

#### Saving a Matplotlib plot

We can save a Matplotlib plot using the savefig() method passing the file name with the extension into a variety high quality formats such as png, jpeg, eps, pdf and many more.

And here is my jpeg file image:

You can also save the image as a pdf by passing the .pdf as extension:

We can also add legend to the figure using the legend() method in order to distinguish the plots. Here is the step to add the legend:

Remember to set the label parameter with each of the plots separately in order for the legend to work correctly.

We will end this post here on Matplotlib. In the next post, we will see various customization that can be done with the plots such as changing the line color, line width, line style and so on.
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